Situation of women, children and minorities with disability in Pakistan

Situation of persons with disability in Pakistan: with focus on women, children and minorities
Submission to the OHCHR
By The Institute for Social Justice (ISJ) www.isj.org.pk

Introduction
In Pakistan, the issue of disability has remained neglected and ignored from all aspects which includes administrative, financial and legal. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are the most marginalized because they are ‘unseen, unheard and uncounted’ in the country.[1] There are no serious attempts by the government to conduct a comprehensive survey to assess the problems of persons with disabilities. In the absence of data, it is difficult to gauge and understanding the scale and magnitude of problems being faced by women, children and religious minorities.

Understanding situation of women, children and minorities with disabilities is extremely important because these categories of PWDs are the lowest ebb of social, economic and cultural marginality. Generally in Pakistani society, women, children and minority groups are suppressed and oppressed. They cannot speak for their rights and not even resist against sexual, physical and psychological abuse and exploitation. This paper briefly discusses some generic areas about all PWDs, and then in specific it highlights and explains what happens with women, children and minority PWDs.

The 18th Constitutional Amendment and the rights of persons with disabilities
In the wake of the 18th Constitutional Amendment, in 2010, there have arisen more ambiguities in roles and responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments and problems of PWDs have doubled. After the 18th Amendment, the disability (and associated matters to it) has become a provincial subject. There is no centralized coordination and data gathering mechanism; efforts taken by the federal, provincial and district governments and civil society organizations are so scattered. All provinces and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) are responsible to deal with employment, rehabilitation, education and training of PWDs. The relevant laws had to be adopted by the provinces such as the Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981, is a major national law that deals with employment, rehabilitation, education and training of persons with disabilities; only province Punjab has adopted it in 2012.

However, this paper offers details in general terms rather specific terms covering issues of women and girls.[2] However, information in bits and pieces suggests that situation of

Statistics
In Pakistan, there are no updated statistics on the number of persons with disabilities, and in specific, there are no updated statistics on women and girls with disabilities, and what types of disabilities they are affected of. Disability has been recognized and included in the census, however “statistics on disability suffer from inadequacies such as lack of standardized definitions. The [World Health Organization] estimates of disability for the developing countries [including Pakistan] were found to be 10% of the total population.”[3] But the old National Population Census, 1998, says that 2.49 percent (3,286,630) of the total population was disabled in Pakistan. Of which, 8.06 percent were blind, 7.43 percent deaf/mute, 18.93 percent crippled, 6.39 percent insane, 7.60 percent mentally retarded, 8.23 percent having multiple disabilities and 43.37 percent others[4]. From the total disabled population. 2,173,999 (66 percent) were in rural areas and 1,112,631 (34 percent) in urban areas. The highest number of the persons with disabilities were reported in Punjab (1,826,623), followed by Sindh (929,400), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (375,448) and Balochistan (146,421).[5]

 

Table 1: Population with disabilities by sex, nature of disability

Sex

Total

Blind

Deaf and mute

Crippled

Insane

Mentally retarded

Having more than one disability

Others

Both sexes

3286630

264762

244254

622025

210129

249823

270381

1425256

Male

1915102

145656

139168

379989

119139

134489

140393

856268

Female

1371528

119106

105086

242036

90990

115334

129988

568988

Source: Population Census 1998, the Government of Pakistan

Categories and causes of disabilities
The disabilities in Pakistan are categorized into physical handicap, hearing impairment, visual impairment and mental retardation. Further, these are classified as mild, moderate, and severe/profound.[6]

As there are various known causes of disability, so are unknown exact causes of it. There are chances that a disability occurs due to impact of various causes. Generally, there are known two main causes of disabilities: 1) biomedical/constitutional and 2) socio-cultural or environmental. The first one originates within the body of a person, and second one is an inference of causes that originate outside the body including person’s life-style and behaviour. Disabilities can begin at any stage of life which may be pre-natal, perintal, neonatal infancy, early childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age.[7]

International Legislation
On 12 November 1990, Pakistan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which recognizes the rights of children with disabilities in Article 2 (para 1) and Article 23.[8] These Articles apply on all children including girls.

On 12 March 1996, Pakistan ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The CEDAW is not directly talking about the rights of women and girls with disabilities.

On 25 October 1994, Pakistan ratified the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention 1983 (No 159). The Convention for its purpose defines a disabled person “an individual whose prospects of securing, retaining and advancing in suitable employment are substantially reduced as a result of a duly recognised physical or mental impairment.” Therefore, each state party to the Convention “shall consider the purpose of vocational rehabilitation as being to enable a disabled person to secure, retain and advance in suitable employment and thereby to further such person’s integration or reintegration into society.”[9]

In August 2011, Pakistan ratified Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which recognizes issues and problems and rights of women and children with disabilities in Articles 6 and 7 respectively.[10] In 2012, the Directorate General Special Education and Social Welfare (DGSE&SW) has established a cell which is called UNCRPD Secretariat for the implementation of the Convention. In addition, a Core Committee was formulated to monitor/coordinate with the Federal Ministries/ Divisions/ Departments/Provincial Government Departments/ NGOs/ DPOs for the implementation of the Convention.[11]

National Legislation and policy
The Constitution of Pakistan, 1973: The Constitution is greatly silent about the rights of the persons with disability. In one sense, their rights can be seen as equals to all other citizens who are without any disability. However, Article 38 (d) talks about the promotion of social and economic well-being of the people by the state. It says that the State has to “provide basic necessities of life, such as food, clothing, housing, education and medical relief, for all such citizens, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race, as are permanently or temporarily unable to earn their livelihood on account of infirmity, sickness or unemployment.” The Article provides protection to all persons with disabilities including women and girls.

Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) 1860: In Section 332 (1) of the PPC, the act of disabling the organ of the body of someone is considered hurt which carries around 10 years imprisonment.

The Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981: The Ordinance laid formal foundation for institutional care of the persons with disability in the country. The Ordinance defines a disable person “who, on account of injury, disease[12] or congenital deformity, is handicapped for undertaking any gainful profession or employment in order to earn his livelihood, and includes a person who is blind, deaf, physically handicapped or mentally retarded.”[13] The Ordinance provides to create Funds and establish the National Council for the rehabilitation of Disabled Persons; and it made mandatory to employ 2 percent disabled persons in public sector. The National Council’s Rules were notified in 1983. The National Council for the rehabilitation of Disabled Persons: The Council was mandated to formulate policy for the employment, rehabilitation and welfare of the disabled persons. Additional, it has mandate to conduct the medical examination, treatment and survey on persons with disabilities.

The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities 2002: It is a comprehensive document that has a vision, guiding principles and strategies to achieve the objectives leading to the empowerment of persons with disabilities. Since the disability is cross-cutting, overarching, multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary subject, therefore, the policy was prepared in consultation the relevant ministries including health, labour & manpower, housing & works, science and technology and departments and prominent NGOs. The policy included administrative, legal and other measures for providing facilities to persons with disabilities from prenatal to postnatal period through proper assessment education, vocational training and employment.

National Plan of Action (NPA) to implement the National Policy for Persons with Disabilities, 2006: After four years, the NPA was introduced to operationalize the National Policy for the Persons with Disabilities; there remained “lack of ownership from coordinating agencies both in the public and private sectors and particularly at provincial level”.[14] The NPA was an integrated operational approach that aimed to address the issues of access, inclusion and equalization of opportunities for the person with disabilities by using all potential resources. The NPA has “identified 17 critical areas of intervention from assessment of the magnitude of the problem to service delivery systems. It spells out short term steps to be taken by the end of June 2009 and long term measures to be adopted by July, 2025”[15] and against each activity designated responsibilities to the relevant departments and agencies.

Some short term objectives of the NPA for PWDs included: “establishment of data bank; sample surveys of persons with disabilities in selected districts; reduction in incidence of disabilities through primary and secondary preventive care, strengthening of disability prevention programmes; arrangements for early detection and institutional interventions; escalating medical rehabilitation services; promoting inclusive education; expanding and reinforcing vocational training; employment including self employment; legislative support to persons with disabilities; and boosting up public opinion and increasing support to NGOs.” Whereas the long term objectives includes “creation of barrier free physical environment for PWDs in all public, private and commercial buildings and public places and revision of construction bye laws. More effective enforcement and expansion of social assistance and social security programme under the provisions of existing laws would be beneficial.” [16]

Of the total 17 areas of action to implement the NPA, two areas were about children with disabilities. Under these actions goals/outcomes, barriers and performance indicators were set. These areas of actions are:
1) Strengthening of Special Education for children with severe and moderately severe disabilities:
Goal/outcome: All children with SEN have opportunity for quality education from kindergarten to class 10 level and develop fullest capacity for economic and social integration that promotes self confidence and empowerment.
Identified barriers: About 1-2% children with disabilities have access to commensurate SE centers (SEC). Rural children have no access to SEC.
Performance Indicator: By year 2025 all children with SEN have access to quality educational services

2) Promoting Inclusive Education for children with Special Education Needs (SEN):  Goal /Outcome: Inclusive Educational opportunities are available to large number of children with moderate and mild level disabilities from kindergarten to class 10 in cost effective ways. Identified Barriers: Regular schools are not geared to accommodate children with special needs. Performance indicators: All regular schools have provision for children with special needs.

One area of action in the NPA was about women with disabilities. Under this action, following goal/outcome, barriers and performance indicators were set:

Goal/outcome: Women with disabilities have a role to play for their betterment, through sport services. Identified barriers: They have presently no access to the existing programmes/services, both in public and private sector. Performance indicators: Programmes are prepared/implemented associating women with disabilities at every stage of development, preparation and implementation.

These areas of action for women and children with disabilities in the NPA which meant to address issues, problems and difficulties of women and girls with disabilities remained only on papers because of “lack of ownership from coordinating agencies both in the public and private sectors and particularly at provincial level. Although there are a number of coordinating networks, they are not effectively vibrant and active for implementation of the…NPA.”

National Policy on Home Based Workers (draft): Besides many other causes, this policy mentions provision of social security to home based workers in case of disability. It does not talk about the rights of women, children and minorities with disabilities working as home based workers.

National Policy for Development and Employment 2002: Out of 7, one of the objectives of the national policy is to safeguard and ensure the protection of women’s human rights including economic, legal, political & social rights, especially the Rights of minority women, rural & poor women, girls and women with disabilities, elderly women and women in vulnerable circumstances and situations.

The Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal Act, 1992:[17] The Bait-ul-Mal is administered by the Board and the moneys in the Bait-ul-Mal is utilized to: provide financial assistance to destitute and needy widows, orphans, invalid, infirm and other needy persons; render them help for their rehabilitation in various professions or vocations; provide them (specially children) assistance for educational pursuits; provide them residential accommodation and necessary facilities.

The Mental Health Ordinance (MHO), 2001: The MHO repeals the Lunacy Act, 1912. The Ordinance provides to consolidate and amend the law relating to the treatment and care of mentally disordered persons, to make better provisions for their care, treatment, management of properties and affairs and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto and to encourage community care of such mentally disordered persons and further to provide for the promotion of mental health and prevention of mental disorder. In addition, it provides to: establish the federal mental health authority, and regulates its powers and functions as well as provides for assessment and treatment of persons with mental disorders; regulates duration of periods of detention of persons with mental disorders; deals with leave and discharge of persons with mental disorders from psychiatric facilities; provides for judicial proceedings for appointment of guardian of person and manager of the property of persons with mental disorders; regulates liability to meet cost of maintenance of persons with mental disorders admitted to psychiatric facility; makes provision for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorders.

The National Plan of Action (NPA) for Children (2006 to 2015): In addition to mention of the rights of children with disabilities in various cross cutting sections, the NPA has exclusive Section (21) on the rights of persons with disabilities. In Goal V, the NPA promises to take special measures to eliminate discrimination against children on the basis of disability and other matters and ensure their equal access to education, health and basic social services. The National Commission for Child Welfare and Development (NCCWD) facilitated the implementation process of the NPA as per the objectives of the project, since the NPA required multi-ministerial interventions both at the Federal and Provincial level, with the devolution of the federal education, health, labour and social welfare ministries, the NPA could not be implemented effectively. However, civil society believes that NPA was never implemented and not many coordination meetings took place between the ministries and departments before the devolution. The NPA for Children remained ineffective from its inception mainly due to NCCWD’s capacity and competence which was responsible for facilitating the implementation.

The National Education Policy (NEP), 2009: The NEP does not contain any direct objective that is meant to address needs of children and women with disabilities. The goals and targets agreed upon in the Jomtien Conference 1990 on EFA had goal of expansion of early childhood care and developmental activities, including family and community interventions, especially for poor, disadvantaged and disabled children.[18]

National Plan of Action for Women

Pending Legislation
The Special Citizens Bill, 2008: The Bill aimed to provide rights of access to persons with disabilities to everywhere (every public place) which included facility of access of wheel chairs in all public and private buildings; allocation of seats in public transport for special citizens; facility on footpaths for the wheel chairs and blind persons; and priority while crossing roads. The Special Citizens (Right to Concessions in Movement) Bill, 2009: This private member bill aimed to provide concessional rates to persons with disability. Also a private member Bill was submitted in the National Assembly of Pakistan which basically meant to change the previous Ordinance of 1981 into Act only for the Islamabad Capital Territory. It was called the Disabled Persons Employment and Rehabilitation Act, 2012. All these bills lapsed after the dissolution of the National Assembly. These Bills have to be re-reviewed and then submitted in the next legislative national assembly.

The Institutional Arrangements
In result of the 18th Constitutional in 2010, the Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education was devolved which was dealing with issues related to disability and responsible for coordination with the concerned bodies and departments in Pakistan for the care, education, training and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. It communicated “all policy decisions to all decisions to all government and non-government organizations for implementation”.[19] Now all the responsibilities have been transferred to the Ministry of Human Rights which is taking care of the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. Besides MoHRs, the National Commission on Status of Women is responsible to look after rights of women with disabilities. However, after the devolution, there has been witnessed confusions in the roles and responsibilities between provincial governments and federal government.

Pakistan in respect to the United Nations International Year of Disabled Persons had established following four centers for children in Islamabad in 1982: National Special Education Centre for Intellectually Challenged Children; National Special Education Centre for Hearing Impaired Children; National Special Education Centre for Visually Handicapped Children; and National Special Education Centre for Physically Handicapped Children.[20]

In 1985, on the directives of then the president of Pakistan, the Directorate General of Special Education was set up in Islamabad as attached Department of the Ministry of Health, Social Welfare & Special Education which aimed specifically for the development of facilities for persons with disabilities.[21] After the 18th Constitutional amendment, the Directorate’s geographic scope has been limited to the ICT and placed under the Ministry of Capital Administration Development Division and also its name has been changed into the Directorate General of Special Education & Social Welfare which has following projects: Computerization of National Braille Press at NSEC for VHC, Islamabad; Construction of Housing Colony of Teacher/Staff of DGSE (Phase-II), Islamabad; and Construction of Model Child Welfare Centre, Humak, Islamabad. The total cost of all these projects is Rs89.044 million.[22]

Before the devolution of various ministries (in result of the 18th Amendment) including social welfare, health and education, there were various national institutions functioning at the federal capital, Islamabad, under the supervision of Directorate General of Special Education. The Status of these institutions is not yet clear. These Institutions are: National Institute of Special Education (NISE) was established in 1986 which developed curriculum and conducts training of SE teachers in all four currently served disciplines; National Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (NCRDP) founded in 1982 to implement and monitor the implementation of 1981; National Mobility and Independence Training Centre (NMITC) for visually handicapped (VH): conducted courses on mobility and independence of visually handicapped; National Training Center for Special Persons (NTCSP), 1986, established with the aim to provide vocational rehabilitation to persons falling under visual impairment and hearing impairment; National Special Education Centers[23]; National Library & Resource Center (NLRC), 1986, is working as a resource center for print and audio-visual material on special education and disabilities; National Institute for Handicapped (NIH), 1987, worked as speech and hearing disorder therapy center, in 1997 it was upgraded to a general hospital for handicapped; National Trust for the Disabled (NTD) [24], 1988,  mean to ensure implementation and coordination of the services for diagnosis, assessment, treatment, education, job placement and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities; Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons (VREDP), 1993, was working to promote community based rehabilitation through skills training and micro credit facilities; and 531 Disability Wise Special Education Schools /Institution were working by the end of 2006. [25]

In the wake of the 18th Amendment, since the subject the rights of persons with disability has been transferred to provinces, therefore, there is a need to look into provincial activities, programmes and plan of actions mainly by the Provincial Councils for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (PCRDP) in all provinces.

If a person (woman) with disability is willing to get employed, he or she has to get her/himself registered with these councils [26] whereas these Councils issue certificate to the person if he/she provides medical certificate by a Medical Boards established at district levels in the District Headquarter Hospitals on the criterions given in the ordinance.

The Sind Child Protection Authority: In Sindh, the Sindh Child Protection Authority law was passed in 2011. Under this law an 11 member authority has been set up to coordinate and monitor child protection issues at provincial and district levels. The Authority would establish an institutional mechanism for child protection and set minimum standards for all institutions relating to children, including educational institutions, orphanages, shelter homes, child parks, hospitals, etc, and ensure implementation. There is no direction mention of the protection rights of children with disabilities; however, it can be presumed that authority may intervene places where children with disabilities are kept.

The KP Child Protection and Welfare Commission: Under the KP Child Protection Welfare Act (CPWA), 2010, a Child Protection and Welfare Commission has been set-up. The Commission reviews provincial laws and regulations affecting the status and rights of children including children with disabilities. The Commission can propose new laws on the rights of children with disabilities and monitors implementation and violation of laws.

Civil Society Organizations’ initiatives
There are a number of civil society organizations that have been working to promote the rights of persons with disabilities (including children and women) but their efforts are scattered and uncoordinated. Many of these organizations are headed or run by the persons affected by one or two of the disabilities. Interestingly, various organizations which are working on child and human rights do not have persons with disabilities as their staff members.

Challenges, constraints and recommendations
There is a big list of challenges and constraints faced by persons with disabilities as well as organizations working for their rights.

The issues of women and girls with disabilities are not seen or addressed separately from males with disabilities. There are however areas of actions in the NPA that offers a great deal of solution to the problems of women and girls with disabilities, but the NPA is only part of books and literary discourse rather a practical guideline for the said purpose.

There is little recognition or ownership of the issues of persons with disability (mainly of women and girls) so is the commitment and will of governments. The relevant stakeholders are not familiar or aware with the rights of women and girls with disabilities, related laws, policies, plan of actions and protocols; therefore, there is no little implementation of these. Also the exiting policy or legislative framework is inadequate to meet needs of women and girl children. There is extremely poor coordination between the government departments and divisions; and negligible excess to civil society organizations.

Interestingly, it is being estimated that there are only 531 institutions to cater rehabilitative and education needs of about 3.29 million people who are victims of one or other disability. Unfortunately, these some institutions are mainly based in urban areas which deprive a great number of women and children with disabilities from the services provided at these institutions. Infrastructure of Pakistani society is made to address needs of people without any disability that’s why there are barriers for women and children with disability to access public places even in cities which includes government offices, schools, colleges, shopping malls and restaurants. Most of the buildings do not have support facilities such as rails, wheelchairs and lifts to facilitate the women and children with disabilities. It is being noted that lifts are built in a way that women and children with disabilities cannot use these. Overall transport sector does not take care of needs of women and children with disabilities; they are deprived of seats in public transport. [27]

Other challenges include: absence of coordination and networking mechanisms; lack of updated and reliable data or information; there are no surveys to assess needs of real beneficiaries; lack of community based rehabilitation and education programmes; absence of systems and mechanisms that can protect rights of women and children with disabilities; as the general society does not care about these marginalized persons so is the role of the media that does not provide these people opportunities to be mainstreamed, rather to live and work and be rehabilitated in segregated places; NGOs and INGOs lack policies for recruiting women and girls with disabilities; lack of trained and qualified teachers and social workers,  audiologists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists; this marginalized groups does not get adequate financial resources so that policies and plan of actions could be run; definition of the disability is not as per the CRPD.

In light of the challenges and problems, the Institute for Social Justice recommends the Government of Pakistan to take all possible administrative, legal and resource related measures which includes effective implementation of laws, policies and national plan of action, allocation of more resources, increasing educational and rehabilitative institutions for women and girls and bring national legislation in complete conformity with the CRPD.

Footnotes

[1] Sheikh, A. et al; Assessment of Approaches and Practices of Disability Network Organizations in Pakistan; Sightsavers

[2] In the wake of the 18th Constitutional Amendment, in 2010, there have arisen more ambiguities in roles and responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments and problems of PWDs have doubled. After the 18th Amendment, the disability (and associated matters to it) has become a provincial subject. There is no centralized coordination and data gathering mechanism; efforts taken by the federal, provincial and district governments and civil society organizations are so scattered. All provinces and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) are responsible to deal with employment, rehabilitation, education and training of PWDs. The relevant laws had to be adopted by the provinces such as the Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981, is a major national law that deals with employment, rehabilitation, education and training of persons with disabilities; only province Punjab has adopted it in 2012.

[3] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward; page 8.

[4] The category of others is not specified

[5] Government of Pakistan, Population Census Organization; Disable Population by Nature of Disability; last retrieved on 24 March 2013 at http://www.census.gov.pk/Disabled.htm

[6] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward.

[7] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward.

[8] Article 23 says “A disabled child has the right to special care, education and training to help him or her enjoy a full and decent life in dignity and achieve the greatest degree of self-reliance and social integration possible.”

[9] Article 1 of the the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention 1983 (No 159); last retrieved on March 16 at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312304

[10] Article 6 – Women with disabilities: 1. States Parties recognize that women and girls with disabilities are subject to multiple discriminations, and in this regard shall take measures to ensure the full and equal enjoyment by them of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the full development, advancement and empowerment of women, for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of the human rights and fundamental freedoms set out in the present Convention. Article 7 – Children with disabilities: 1. States Parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure the full enjoyment by children with disabilities of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children. 2. In all actions concerning children with disabilities, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. 3. States Parties shall ensure that children with disabilities have the right to express their views freely on all matters affecting them, their views being given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity, on an equal basis with other children, and to be provided with disability and age-appropriate assistance to realize that right.

[11] The Ministry of Capital Administration Development Division; Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare at http://www.mocad.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM2L2NhZC8uL2ZybURldGFpbHMuYXNweD9vcHQ9bWlzY2xpbmtzJmlkPTEz

[12] It includes the physical or mental condition arising from the imperfect development of any organ (Section 2 (d)).

[13] Section 2 (c)

[14] http://pk.sightsavers.org/in_depth/policy_and_research/15838_disability.pdf

[15] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward.

[16] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward.

[17] Bait-ul-Mal is an Arabic word which means house of money or wealth.

[18]Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (2008), Education for All: Mid Decade Assessment – Country Report Pakistan; last retrieved on March 25th 2013 at http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Pakistan/Pakistan_EFA_MDA.pdf

[19] UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific; last retrieved at http://www.unescap.org/sdd/issues/disability/policycentral/CountryProfiles/Pakistan.doc

[20] The Ministry of Capital Administration Development Division; Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare at http://www.mocad.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM2L2NhZC8uL2ZybURldGFpbHMuYXNweD9vcHQ9bWlzY2xpbmtzJmlkPTEz

[21] The Ministry of Capital Administration Development Division; Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare at http://www.mocad.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM2L2NhZC8uL2ZybURldGFpbHMuYXNweD9vcHQ9bWlzY2xpbmtzJmlkPTEz

[22]The Ministry of Capital Administration Development Division; Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare at http://www.mocad.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM2L2NhZC8uL2ZybURldGFpbHMuYXNweD9vcHQ9bWlzY2xpbmtzJmlkPTEz

[23] These centers provided services such as assessment and diagnostics, education up to Primary, Middle, Secondary and Higher Secondary levels, pre vocational and vocational training, early intervention , physiotherapy, speech therapy , occupational therapy, indoor and outdoor recreation facilities and parents’ counselling.

[24] Established under the Charitable Endowment Act, 1890

[25] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward.

[26] Section 12 of the Ordinance 1981

[27] Network of Organizations Working for Persons with Disabilities, Pakistan (2008); A report on the status of persons with disabilities and the way forward; page 8.